A single-stage pump contains only one set of pumping gears (see Figure 1-23). These pumps are commonly used in single-pipe gravityfeed installations or two-pipe installations under low-lift conditions with up to 10 inches of vacuum. The following are the principal components of a single-stage fuel pump:
1. Pumping gears.
2. Cutoff valve.
4. Shaft seal.
5. Noise-dampening device.
6. Shaft bearing.
8. Bleed valve.
Fuels Used in Oil Burners
No. 1 and No. 2 fuel oil are both commonly used for residential heating purposes. The No. 2 is slightly more expensive, but the fuel oil gives more heat per gallon used.The lighter No. 1 fuel oil is used in vaporizing, or pot-type, oil burners.The No. 2 fuel oil is used in both atomizing and rotary oil burners.
The manufacturer of the oil burner will generally stipulate the grade of fuel oil to be used. If this information is unavailable, the label of Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., and the Underwriters Laboratories of Canada will stipulate the correct grade of fuel oil to be used.
The heavier the grade of fuel oil used in an oil burner, the greater the care that must be taken to ensure that the oil is delivered for combustion at the proper atomizing temperature. If the oil is not maintained at this temperature prior to delivery for combustion, the oil burner will fail to operate efficiently. An efficient oil burner is one that burns the fuel oil completely using the smallest amount of air necessary for combustion.
The fuel oil first enters the unit by passing through the strainer, where foreign particles such as dirt and line filter fibers are removed. The fuel oil then moves through the hydraulically balanced pumping gears and is pumped under pressure to the valve (see circuit diagram in Figure 1-24). The pressure forces the piston away from the nozzle cutoff seat, and the fuel oil then flows out the nozzle port. Oil in excess of nozzle capacity is bypassed through the valve back to the strainer chamber in a single-pipe system or is returned to the tank in a two-pipe system. Pressure is reduced on the head of the piston when the pump motor is shut off. At this point, the piston snaps back, causing the nozzle port opening to close. A bleeder valve opening in the piston provides for automatic air purging on a two-pipe system, providing for fast cutoff.